Saturday, May 27, 2017

Was Aadam عليه السلام a Prophet or not?

بسم الله والحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله ، وبعد


If Aadam عليه السلام was a Prophet, then why was Nooh عليه السلام mentioned first in the following Aayah:

﴿إِنَّا أَوْحَيْنا إِلَيْكَ كَما أَوْحَيْنا إِلى نُوحٍ وَالنَّبِيِّينَ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ﴾

{Indeed, We have revealed to you, [O Muhammad], as We revealed to Nooh and the prophets after him.} [Surah al-Nisaa’ (4): 163], while Aadam عليه السلام was not mentioned?


#1: The reason for the revelation of this Aayah:

Imaam Ibn al-Katheer رحمه الله mentioned that `Ikrimah, or Sa`eed bin Jubayr related from Ibn `Abbaas that he said: (The two Jews) Sukayn and `Adee Ibn Zayd said: “O Muhammad! We do not know that Allaah sent down anything (revelation) to any human being after Moosa.” So Allaah sent down a rebuttal of their statement:

﴿إِنَّآ أَوْحَيْنَآ إِلَيْكَ كَمَآ أَوْحَيْنَآ إِلَى نُوحٍ وَالنَّبِيِّينَ مِن بَعْدِهِ﴾

{Verily, We have inspired you (O Muhammad) as We inspired Nooh and the Prophets after him.}

Allaah تعالى states that He had sent down revelation to His servant and Messenger Muhammad just as He sent down the revelations to previous Prophets.

[End of quote from Tafseer Ibn Katheer. Imaam al-Tabaree also mentioned the same in his Tafseer]

#2: It becomes clear from the above that this Aayah was a rebuttal of the Jews who denied that any Revelation was given to the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم and this Aayah does not deny the Prophethood of Aadam عليه السلام.

#3: The Aayah mentions that the essence of the Revelation which was given to Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم was the same as that of Nooh عليه السلام and those who were mentioned in the Aayah.

#4: Nooh عليه السلام was mentioned first because he was the first one who fought against Shirk, and then Ibraaheem عليه السلام did the same after him, and this continued till the Revelation was sent to the Last and Final Messenger and Prophet, Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم.

#5: Shirk only appeared after Aadam عليه السلام had long passed away. Shirk was first started by the people of Nooh عليه السلام as Ibn `Abbaas رضي الله عنهما narrated: …the names (of the idols) formerly belonged to some pious men of the people of Noah, and when they died Shaitaan inspired their people to (prepare) and place idols at the places where they used to sit, and to call those idols by their names. The people did so, but the idols were not worshiped till those people (who initiated them) had died and the origin of the idols had become obscure, whereupon people began worshipping them. [Saheeh Al-Bukhaaree]

#6: Aadam عليه السلام also received Revelation from His Lord:

﴿فَتَلَقَّىٰ آدَمُ مِن رَّبِّهِ كَلِمَاتٍ فَتَابَ عَلَيْهِ

{Then Aadam received (some) Words from his Lord. And his Lord pardoned him (accepted his repentance)} [Surah al-Baqarah (2): 37]

#7: Further proof that Aadam عليه السلام was the first Prophet:

Shaikh Ibn al-`Uthaymeen رحمه الله said (paraphrased):

Aadam عليه السلام was the first Prophet but not a Messenger:

Abu Umaamah رضي الله عنه said: O Prophet of Allaah! Who was the first Prophet? He صلى الله عليه وسلم said: Aadam عليه السلام. I said: O Prophet of Allaah! Was Aadam the first Prophet? He said: Yes, the prophet (to whom Allaah) spoke and Allaah created him with His Hand, and breath into him from His soul (which He created for Aadam). [Saheeh Ibn Hibbaan. See al-Saheehah of Shaikh al-Albaanee (6/359)]

Nooh عليه السلام was the first Messenger:

In the long Hadeeth of the intercession it is mentioned that the people will approach Nooh عليه السلام and will say: You were the first Messenger to be sent to the people of the earth. [Saheeh al-Bukhaaree and Saheeh Muslim]

And this is a clear text that Nooh عليه السلام was the first of the Messengers.
[Majmoo` al-Fataawa of Shaikh Ibn al-`Uthaymeen (1/316)]

#8: Shaikh Ibn al-`Uthaymeen was also asked about the above Aayah:

Question: The Prophets mentioned in the Aayah: {Indeed, We have revealed to you, [O Muhammad], as We revealed to Nooh and the prophets after him}, were they Messengers or not?

Shaikh Ibn al-`Uthaymeen replied: The Prophets mentioned in the above Aayah were all Messengers because after that Aayah Allaah تعالى said:

﴿رُّسُلًا مُّبَشِّرِينَ وَمُنذِرِينَ لِئَلَّا يَكُونَ لِلنَّاسِ عَلَى اللَّـهِ حُجَّةٌ بَعْدَ الرُّسُلِ

{[We sent] Messengers as bringers of good tidings and Warners so that mankind will have no argument against Allaah after the Messengers.} [Surah al-Nisaa (4): 165]
[Majmoo` al-Fataawa of Shaikh Ibn al-`Uthaymeen (1/316)]

#9: Imaam al-Baghawee رحمه الله commented on the Aayah saying:

Allaah تعالى mentioned a number of Messengers to whom He تعالى had sent Revelations, and He تعالى began by first mentioning Nooh عليه السلام because (after the flood) he was the father of mankind just like how Aadam عليه السلام was (before the flood).

Allaah تعالى said:

﴿وَجَعَلْنَا ذُرِّيَّتَهُ هُمُ الْبَاقِينَ

{And We made his descendants those remaining [on the earth]} [Surah al-Saaffaat (37): 77]

And also because he (Nooh) was the first of the Prophets who was sent with a Sharee`ah, and the first warner against Shirk (polytheism), and the first whose people were punished for rejecting his Da`wah (call), and people of the earth had perished because of his supplication [1], and he was the Prophet who lived the longest, he himself was a miracle and a sign from Allaah because even though he lived for a thousand years, none of his teeth fell off, nor did his hair turn grey, nor did his strength fade, and there was no Prophet who patiently bore the harm of his people like he (Nooh) did because of his long life.
[Tafseer al-Baghawee (1/722)]

[1] Nooh عليه السلام supplicated saying:

﴿وَقَالَ نُوحٌ رَّبِّ لَا تَذَرْ عَلَى الْأَرْضِ مِنَ الْكَافِرِينَ دَيَّارًا * إِنَّكَ إِن تَذَرْهُمْ يُضِلُّوا عِبَادَكَ وَلَا يَلِدُوا إِلَّا فَاجِرًا كَفَّارًا

{And Nooh said: “My Lord! Leave not (a single) one of the disbelievers on the earth! Indeed, if You leave them, they will mislead Your servants and not beget except [every] wicked one and [confirmed] disbeliever.} [Surah Nooh (71): 26-27]

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